Linux升级Python提示Tkinter模块找不到解决

Python 2013-04-12 python,升级,tkinter

一、安装tkinter

在Linux中python默认是不安装Tkinter模块,

[root@li250-193 ~]# python
Python 2.6.6 (r266:84292, Feb 22 2013, 00:00:18) 
[GCC 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-3)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import Tkinter
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ImportError: No module named Tkinter
>>> 

我们安装Tkinter模块

[root@li250-193 ~]# yum -y install tkinter
...
[root@li250-193 ~]# python
Python 2.6.6 (r266:84292, Feb 22 2013, 00:00:18) 
[GCC 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-3)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import Tkinter
>>> 

二、升级Python

Linux的Python版本默认都不叫低

查看Python版本

[root@li250-193 ~]# python -V
Python 2.6.6

DOWN新版本

[root@li250-193 ~]# wget http://www.python.org/ftp/python/2.7.4/Python-2.7.4.tgz

解压安装

[root@li250-193 ~]# tar -xf Python-2.7.4.tgz 
[root@li250-193 ~]# cd Python-2.7.4
[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# ./configure
...
[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# make
...
[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# make install
...

看看新版本Python是否可以使用Tkinter?

[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# ./python
Python 2.7.4 (default, Apr 12 2013, 08:03:09) 
[GCC 4.4.6 20120305 (Red Hat 4.4.6-4)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import Tkinter       
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "/root/Python-2.7.4/Lib/lib-tk/Tkinter.py", line 39, in <module>
    import _tkinter # If this fails your Python may not be configured for Tk
ImportError: No module named _tkinter
>>> 

提示找不到tkinter模块?看看旧版的是不是正常

[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# python 
Python 2.6.6 (r266:84292, Feb 22 2013, 00:00:18) 
[GCC 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-3)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import Tkinter
>>> 

旧版的没问题,难道需要yum install tkinter一次?

[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# yum install tkinter
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.team-cymru.org
 * extras: mirror.team-cymru.org
 * updates: mirror.team-cymru.org
Setting up Install Process
Package tkinter-2.6.6-36.el6.x86_64 already installed and latest version
Nothing to do

提示已安装,看来不是tkinter的问题,看看tkinter模块在哪里?

[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# find /usr -name *tkinter.so
/usr/lib64/python2.6/lib-dynload/_tkinter.so

找到一个,在2.6旧版本的目录下,估计是因为新版本库指向问题。于是认真读了README说明。重新配置安装

三、正确安装新版Python

首先修改Setup.dist文件

[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# vim Modules/Setup.dist 

找到下面这几行,把前面的井号去掉打开它

_tkinter _tkinter.c tkappinit.c -DWITH_APPINIT \
-L/usr/local/lib \
-I/usr/local/include \
-ltk8.5 -ltcl8.5 \
-lX11

以上第四行

-ltk8.5 -ltcl8.5 默认是 8.2 ,请你系统实际tcl/tk版本修改

[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# rpm -qa | grep ^tk
tk-8.5.7-5.el6.x86_64
tkinter-2.6.6-36.el6.x86_64
[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# rpm -qa | grep ^tcl
tcl-8.5.7-6.el6.x86_64

我系统中装的是8.5,所以这里我改成了8.5

保存退出

安装tck-devel、tk-devel

[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# yum -y install tcl-devel tk-devel

开始配置安装

[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# ldconfig
[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# ./configure
...
[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# make
...
[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# make install
...

看下新版Python是否可以使用tkinter模块

[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# ./python
Python 2.7.4 (default, Apr 12 2013, 08:49:11) 
[GCC 4.4.6 20120305 (Red Hat 4.4.6-4)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import Tkinter
>>> 

已经没问题,旧版再看看

[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# /usr/bin/python2.6
Python 2.6.6 (r266:84292, Feb 22 2013, 00:00:18) 
[GCC 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-3)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import Tkinter
>>> 

也没问题

如果直接敲入python -V查看版本是不是最新的,如果不是可以这么干:

which出python命令路径

[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# which python
/usr/local/bin/python

cp 过去

[root@li250-193 Python-2.7.4]# cp python /usr/local/bin/python

四、升级Python引起yum版本无法使用的问题解决

不少童鞋安装后就

cp python /usr/bin/python

导致yum时就提示

[root@lee ~]# yum
There was a problem importing one of the Python modules
required to run yum. The error leading to this problem was:

   No module named yum

Please install a package which provides this module, or
verify that the module is installed correctly.

It's possible that the above module doesn't match the
current version of Python, which is:
2.7.4 (default, Apr  9 2013, 17:12:56) 
[GCC 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-3)]

If you cannot solve this problem yourself, please go to 
the yum faq at:
  http://yum.baseurl.org/wiki/Faq
  

[root@lee ~]# 

因为yum头部默认制定python脚本的路径就是

#! /usr/bin/python

你把旧版的python替换后就是用不了,不知道为何新版Python不能被yum识别,目前唯一最好解决的方法就是修改yum头部声明

改成

#! /usr/bin/python2.6

即可,这里的python2.6是我centos默认版本,大家的默认版本是多少请按实际情况修改即可

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